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Mifamurtide TFA (MTP-PE TFA), an analog of the muramyl dipeptide (MDP), is a nonspecific immunomodulator by stimulating the immune response activating macrophages and monocytes. Mifamurtide TFA, an orphan drug, is a specific ligand of NOD2 used as an insulin sensitizer. Mifamurtide TFA has the potential for osteosarcoma research.
Mifamurtide TFA (MTP-PE TFA; 100 µM) induces a reduction of MG63 cells number when co-cultured with macrophages. Mifamurtide TFA (100 µM) increases both the M1 polarization marker iNOS and the M2 polarization marker CD206 mRNAs; both pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. Mifamurtide TFA increases the iron transporter DMT1 protein. L-mifamurtide TFA (5, 5000 nM; for 48 hours) alone has no direct effect on the proliferation rate of the two osteosarcoma cell lines MOS-J and KHOS in vitro or in vivo. Mifamurtide TFA acts as a nonspecific immunomodulator by activating macrophages and monocytes related to the upregulation of tumoricidal activity and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGD2.
Mifamurtide TFA (MTP-PE TFA; 1 mg/kg; i.v.; twice per week for 4 weeks) causes a trend of diminished spontaneous lung metastasis dissemination. Mifamurtide TFA (50 μg/mouse) improves glucose tolerance during endotoxemia in mice. Mifamurtide TFA (equivalent to 20 μg MDP; 4 times per week for 5 weeks) improves glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice without altering body mass.
. Kevin Biteau, et al. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer. Am J Cancer Res. 2016 Feb 15;6(3):677-89.
. Joseph F Cavallari, et al. Muramyl Dipeptide-Based Postbiotics Mitigate Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance via IRF4. Cell Metab. 2017 May 2;25(5):1063-1074.e3.
. Francesca Punzo, et al. Mifamurtide and TAM-like macrophages: effect on proliferation, migration and differentiation of osteosarcoma cells. Oncotarget. 2020 Feb 18;11(7):687-698.